One of the most pervasive influences of land-use activities on stream ecosystems is an increase in sediment load.

Sources of sediment:

Urbanization and increased impervious surfaces (roads, parking lots, etc.)
Development in riparian zones
Erosion caused by soil disturbance from construction activities
Channelization of streams

Effects of sedimentation:

Cutthroat trout lay their eggs in streambed gravel. When fine sediment occupies the space between this gravel, success of cutthroat trout reproduction decreases.
Sediment and the pollution it carries is also extremely detrimental to the aquatic insects that use the streambed for their remarkably complex life stages.